Monday, 7 November 2016

A strong relationship between Spelling and Reading, Writing

Khi các trẻ đã thạo phần phonic, có thể reading sẽ rất ok như chẳng hạn nhận dạng ra các sound, letter...nhưng khi đặt bút thực hành thử viết một từ hay một câu đơn giản nào đó thì việc không phải là chuyện dễ. Vấn đề nằm ở chỗ trong English có rất nhiều sound phát âm rất giống nhau nhưng là từ khác, hoàn toàn không giống tiếng việt, nhiều khi giáo viên không phải là bản xứ hoặc giáo viên hoặc cha mẹ phát âm không chuẩn sẽ dẫn đến tình trạng trẻ sẽ không dễ dàng nhận dạng ra sound cần phát hiện trong từ đó để viết, hoặc có thể viết ra một âm khác, điều đó sẽ dẫn đến sai nghĩa của từ hoặc ra một từ khác. Cái này gọi chung là "sai chính tả", nhưng trong English, vấn đề "sai chính tả" này thì khá nguy hiểm.
Điều này sẽ thường xảy ra khi các trẻ lớp 1 khi bắt đầu học luyện kỹ năng writing từ những từ, câu đơn giản nhất. Đây chính là lúc phát hiện "sai chính tả" của các anh chị yêu dấu.
Làm thế nào để trẻ giảm bớt phần nhầm lẫn giữa các sound. Phần này sẽ giúp các trẻ làm điều đó.
A strong relationship between Spelling and Reading, Writing:
Spelling can be tricky! To spell well, you need to think about how each words sounds and what letter can make those sounds. Do you want to improve your spelling and pronunciation in English? This section is based on the UK literacy programme, Letters and Sounds.
Spelling is the writing of a word or words with the necessary letters and diacritics present in a comprehensibleorder, usually with some degree of standardization; it is "the conventions which determine how the graphemes of a writing system are used to write a language". Spelling is one of the elements of orthography, and highly standardized spelling is a prescriptive element.
Misspelling:
While some words admit multiple spellings, some spellings are not considered standard, and thus labeled as misspellings. A misspelled word can be a series of letters that represents no correctly spelled word of the same language at all (such as "leik" for "like") or a correct spelling of another word (such as writing "here" when one means "hear", or "no" when one means "know"). Misspellings of the latter type can easily make their way into printed material because they are not caught by simple computerized spell checkers.
Misspellings may be due to either typing errors (e.g. the transposition error teh for the), or lack of knowledge of the correct spelling. Whether or not a word is misspelled may depend on context, as is the case with American / British English distinctions. Misspelling can also be a matter of opinion when variant spellings are accepted by some and not by others. For example, "miniscule" (for "minuscule") is a misspelling to many, and yet it is listed as an acceptable variant in some dictionaries.
A well-known Internet scam involves the registration of domain names that are deliberate misspellings of well-known corporate names in order to mislead or defraud. The practice is commonly known as "typosquatting".
Research also bears out a strong relationship between spelling and writing: Writers who must think too hard about how to spell use up valuable cognitive resources needed for higher level aspects of composition. Even more than reading, writing is a mental juggling act that depends on automatic deployment of basic skills such as handwriting, spelling, grammar, and punctuation so that the writer can keep track of such concerns as topic, organization, word choice, and audience needs. Poor spellers may restrict what they write to words they can spell, with inevitable loss of verbal power, or they may lose track of their thoughts when they get stuck trying to spell a word. 
Clearly, the research base for claiming that spelling is important for young children is solid: Learning to spell enhances children’s reading and writing. But what about middle-school students? Does continued spelling instruction offer any added benefits? Here the research is sparse indeed. Yet, the nature of the English language’s spelling/writing system provides reason to believe that there would be significant benefits to older students from allocating a small amount of time to continued, appropriate spelling instruction. In addition to continuing to learn the rules of spelling, students can develop a deep understanding of English by studying the meanings of roots, prefixes, and suffixes; families of related words; the historical development of the English language; and words’ language of origin. It’s very likely that this sort of word study (in addition to being intrinsically interesting to many students) would support vocabulary development and facilitate reading by enabling students to view any new word from the angles of sound, meaning, language of origin, and syntax. As a result, students would be more likely to be able to figure out the new word’s meaning as well as how to spell it and how to use it with precision.
  
How to spelling support reading and writing
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Tham khảo thêm: http://www.readingrockets.org/article/how-spelling-supports-reading
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