Sunday, 11 February 2018

American government and politics

The USA was formed a little more than 230 years ago, but its constitution - the document that describes the basic principles of how the country will be run - is the oldest written constitution still in use. It has lasted such a long time because it has ensured a stable government and a good life for most Americans.

Power from the people
Quyền lực từ nhân dân

According to the constitution, the power is held by the people of America. It states clearly what powers the government has, which include the authority to collect taxes, to maintain the armed forces and to carry on trade with other countries. The constitution also limits the power of the government by granting American citizens certain rights. For example, the government cannot tell people what religion they must follow or punish people for what they say or write publicly.
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The White House has become a global symbol of democracy.
The White House is the home and official workplace of the US president. It is situated in Washington, DC, and was built between 1792 and 1800. Not far from the White House is the United States Capitol, which is where Congress - the Senate and the House Representatives - meet.

Federal system
Hệ thống/chế độ liên bang

The USA has a federal system of government. This means that the country is made up of separate states united under the federal, or national, government. Each state can make its own laws on matters such as education or punishments for crimes, but state laws cannot conflict with laws passed by the federal government - and all laws must follow the rules of the constitution.
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The United States Congress is jointly made up of the House Representatives and the Senate. The men and women of Congress are elected by the people in their home state.

Three branches of government
Ba nhánh của chính phủ

The US government is made up of three branches: executive, legislative and judicial. The president of the USA is the leader of the executive branch, which carries out the laws. Two groups of lawmakers - the House Representatives and the Senate - make up the legislative branch. They write and pass new laws. The judicial branch is made up of courts led by judges. The judicial branch settles disagreements about laws. It also decides whether laws passed by the House and Representatives and Senate follow the rules of the US constitution. Each branch of the government can undo actions by the other branches, which makes sure that no one branch can grow too powerful.
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